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Barcode Glossary

We have assembled a glossary of barcode terms and definitions. This is a comprehensive list of terms that are used for all industries including retail.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Accuracy
Term used for bar code verification. Accuracy determines whether any element width, or inter-character gap width, differs from its nominal width by more than the printing tolerance.

Adhesive
Portion of a pressure sensitive label allowing for the label to be affixed to its intended surface…the sticky side of the label.

Alignment
Relative position and orientation of a scanner to the barcode symbol.

Alphanumeric
Character set consisting of letters and numbers.

ASCII
Character set described in the American National Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text.

Aspect ratio  
Ratio of bar code symbol height to symbol length.

Asynchronous communication
Every character transmitted has special bits attached, telling the receiving device when the data begins and ends.

Auto discrimination
Ability of bar code scanning/decoding equipment to recognize more than one symbology.

Average Background Reflectance
A bar code verification term expressed as a percent.

B

Backcoating
Thermal transfer ribbon use backcoating to keep the ribbon from sticking to the printhead and label material. This protects the printhead from damage caused by excessive heat, static, and abrasion.

Background
Spaces, quiet zones, and areas surrounding a printed symbol.

Bar
The lines or darker elements of a printed bar code symbol.

Bar Code Character
A single group of bars and stripes that represents a specific quantity of ASCII characters.

Bar Code Density
The number of characters that can be represented in a linear unit of measure. This number is often expressed in characters per inch or cpi.

Bar Code Reader
Any device that can read a bar code (ight pen, laser gun, fixed scanner, etc.).

Bar Width
Thickness of an individual bar measured from edge to edge.

Bi-directional
Barcode symbol that can be successfully read in either direction.

Bipad
The BIPAD numbering system is unique to the retail magazine business.
Here is Nationwide Barcode’s article about the Bipad numbering system

Bitmapped Font
Character/font sets printed by a thermal printer and are typically available in limited point sized: .6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 18 point.

C

Character Alignment
The vertical or horizontal position of characters.

Character Density
The number of data characters per unit length

Character Font
The type and style of data characters available for a particular thermal printer model.

Character Set
A range of data characters (alpha, numeric, and/or punctuation) that can be encoded into any given symbology.

Check Character/Digit
A mathematical algorithm that has been created for the purpose of performing a mathematical check to ensure that a barcode has been scanned and read correctly.

CODABAR
Originally developed by Pitney Bowes, the Codabar Barcode is used primarily by US Blood Banks, Photo Labs and Overnight Delivery Services. Codabar  can encode the numbers 0 through 9, the start/stop characters A, B, C, D, E, *, N or T. and the six symbols (-:.$/+).

Code 2 of 5
Also called Interleaved Two of Five or ITF
Interleaved 2 of 5 is a continuous two-width barcode symbology encoding digits. It is used commercially on 135 film and on cartons of some products, while the products inside are labeled with UPC or EAN.

Code 11 Barcode
Code 11 is a barcode symbology developed by Intermec in 1977. It is used primarily in telecommunications. The symbol can encode any length string consisting of the digits 0-9 and the dash character (-). One or more modulo-11 check digit(s) can be included.

Code 39 Barcode
Full alphanumeric bar code. Code 39 is the standard for many industries, including adoption by the U.S. Department of Defense for its LOGMARS specification.

Code 49 Barcode
Very compact variable bar code type capable of encoding the full 128 ASCII character.

Code 93 Barcode
Code 93 is a barcode symbology designed in 1982 by Intermec to provide a higher density and data security enhancement to Code 39. It is an alphanumeric, variable length symbology. Code 93 is used primarily by Canada Post to encode supplementary delivery information. Every symbol includes two check characters.

Code 128 Barcode
Code 128 is a very high-density barcode symbology. (A special version of it called GS1-128 is used extensively world wide in shipping and packaging industries.) It is used for alphanumeric or numeric-only barcodes. It can encode all 128 characters of ASCII and, by use of an extension character (FNC4), the Latin-1 characters defined in ISO/IEC 8859-1.

Continuous Media
Label, ticket, or tag stock media that does not contain any notches, gaps, or holes between each label.

CPI
Characters Per Inch.

D

Data identifier
Message prefixes in a bar code that define a category or intended use of the data that follows the identifier.

Decoder
The is the part of the barcode reader that processes the signals and interprets them into usable and meaningful data.

Depth of Field
Minimum and Maximum distance in which a scanner is capable of reading bar codes.

Diffuse Reflection
A bar code verification term. Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light from a surface such that an incident ray is reflected at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An illuminated ideal diffuse reflecting surface will have equal luminance from all directions in the hemisphere surrounding the surface.

DPI Dots Per Inch.
This defines printing resolution of thermal and laser printers.

E

EAN
European Article Numbering system (also known as International Article Number and GTIN13). This is similar to the UPC (Universal Product Code) system used in the US and Canada.The EAN is a 13 digit system including a country code. Nationwide Barcode provides EAN barcodes

EAN-13
EAN-13 has 13 characters. See EAN (above).
There are variants of the EAN-13 barcode which include a 2 or 5 digit extension barcode.

EAN-8
EAN-8 has a left-hand guard pattern, four odd parity digits, a center guard pattern, four even parity digits, and a right hand guard pattern with a total of eight symbols.

Element
A single bar or space in a bar code.

F

Facestock
The part of the substrate (media) where printing occurs.

Federation of Automated Coding Technologies. (FACT)
FACT was formed to foster interindustry communications and coordination relating to barcode standards.FACT maintains a database of specifications and data identifiers.

First Read Rate
Bar code verification term. The ratio of the number of successful reads to the number of attempts. Commonly expressed as a percentage. Abbreviated as FRR.

Fixed beam scanner
A visible light or laser scanner that requires a more exact positioning of a bar code than a moving beam scanner.

Function code
Function (FNC) codes define instructions for a bar code reader decoding Code 128 bar codes. FNC 1, for example, is a required component of the UCC-128 specification. FNC 2 tells the reader to store the data read and transmit it with the next symbol. FNC 3 is reserved for code reader initializing and other reader functions. FNC 4 is reserved for future use.

G

GS1
Founded in 1977, GS1 is an international association dedicated to the development and implementation of global standards and solutions to improve the efficiency and visibility of supply and demand chains globally and across multiple sectors. The GS1 System of standards is the most widely used supply-chain standards system in the world. Nationwide Barcode received their barcodes from the GS1 prior to August of 2002 when their prefixes were grated grand-fathered status allowing them to resell to consumers.

GTIN
GTIN is an “umbrella” term used to describe the entire family of GS1 data structures for trade items (products and services) identification. GTINs may be 8, 12, 13 or 14 digits long, and each of these 4 numbering structures are constructed in a similar fashion, combining Company Prefix, Item Reference and a calculated Check Digit.

GTIN 8
An 8-digit number used predominately outside of North America. The barcode format for this is EAN-8.

GTIN 12
A GTIN 12 is a 12-digit number used primarily in North America (The barcode format for this is UPC-A)

GTIN 13
The 13-digit number used outside of North America – the barcode format for a GTIN13 is the EAN-13.

GTIN 14
A GTIN 14 is primarily used as a shipping container barcode using a ITF symbology to create the barcode.

Guard Bars
Bars at the ends and center of a UPC or EAN bar code used as reference points for reading the barcode.

H

Hand-Held Scanner
Scanning device to read barcodes.

Heat Resistance
The properties of a label which prohibits damage due to high temperatures. These damages can be physical or chemical changes to the material.

Horizontal bar code
A bar code type presented in such a manner that its overall length dimension is parallel to the horizon. The bars are presented in an array which looks like a picket fence.

I

Infrared laser diode
Used in some hand laser scanners to project a light beam.

Infrared
The band of light wavelengths too long to be seen by the human eye. Used in access control and security applications where bar code fields must not be visible by human eye — only to an infrared scanner.

Ink Jet Printing
Type of computer printing that that creates an image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper of other substrate. High end inkjet printers are often used in corrugated boxes where the barcodes are made very large so dot placement accuracy is not as critical.

Interleaved 2 of 5
High density, numeric bar code type in which each character is composed of five elements

ISBN-13
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin,for the booksellers and stationers W.H. Smith and others in 1966. (Wikipedia).
Books often have a 5 digit add-on indicating the price of the book.

ISMN
The International Standard Music Number (ISMN) is a unique number for the identification of all notated music publications from all over the world (excluding the US), whether available for sale, hire or gratis–whether a part, a score, or an element in a multi-media kit.

ISSN Barcode
Used mainly throughout Europe, The ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)  identifies periodical publications as such, including electronic serials.
The ISSN is a numeric code which is used as an identifier: it has no signification in itself and does not contain in itself any information referring to the origin or contents of the publication.

ITF14
Also known as a GTIN 14
The ITF14 is a 14 digit barcode used to mark the master shipping containers of products with a UPC identifier. It is based on the I2of5 barcode. ITF14 barcodes usually contain a top and bottom bar (sometimes rectangle) called the Bearers bar.

J

JAN
Japanese Article Number – Name used for the EAN system in Japan

K

L

Label Thickness
The ideal range of media/substrate thickness o promote optimum print quality and performance.

Label, Pressure Sensitive
Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA, self adhesive, self stick adhesive) is adhesive which forms bond when pressure is applied to adhere the label or other item to the adherent. No solvent, water or other component is required.

Label, Transparent
A pressure-sensitive clear label.

Ladder
bar code printed in a rotation perpendicular to the horizon so that the individual bars appear as rungs on a ladder. Vertical bar code.

Laminate
To apply one layer of material over another. A clear laminate protects the surface of a printed item or label/

Laser Printing
Laser printing is a digital printing process that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. The pressure from the printhead and drum then fuse the image to the paper, creating the image. Laser printed labels are only as durable as a paper photocopy.

Laurer, George
Inventor of the UPC barcode. George Joseph Laurer (born September 23, 1925 in New York, NY) developed the Universal Product Code in 1973.[1] As an engineer at IBM he was asked to develop the pattern used for the Universal Product Code.
A 36-year veteran of the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) who retired in June 1987, George Laurer is the holder of 25 patents. He is also the author of 20 published Technical Disclosure Bulletins. (wikipedia)
George Laurer’s sites:
Laurer UPC: http://www.laurerupc.com/
Authenticated UPC Directory: http://authenticatedupcregistrationdirectory.org/

LED
Light-emitting diode. The light source often used in light pens.

Light pen
A scanning device which is used as a hand held bar code reader, also known as a wand. Requires direct contact with the image.

LOGMARS
Logistics of Marking and Reading symbols. A Department of Defense marking specification.

M

Machine-Readable
A general term used for printed material that can be scanned and directly transferred to a data processing system.

Manufacturer’s ID
With a UPC, the first 6, 7, 8 or 9 digits of the barcode.

Media
Refers to the label, tag, or other substrate used – the surface on which a barcode symol is printed.

Media Roll Capacity
The maximum/minimum roll diameter that a thermal printer can accommodate, for example 5.0” O.D. (Outer Diameter) and 1.0” I.D. (Inner Diameter).

mil
One one-thousandth of an inch (0.001″). Unit of measurement used in bar code specifications.

Misread
A condition when the reader/decoder does not agree with the data encoded in the bar code field.

MSI Barcode
MSI (also known as Modified Plessey) is a barcode symbology developed by the MSI Data Corporation, based on the original Plessey Code symbology. It is a continuous symbology that is not self-checking.

Module
The width of the narrow bars in a bar code.

Moving beam scanner
A device where scanning is achieved by mechanically moving a light beam through the bars of a bar code field.

N

Nanometer  
Unit of measure used to define the wavelength of light.

Net Data Density
The net data density of a linear bar code symbol is determined by dividing the number of characters in the symbol by the overall symbol length

Nominal
Tolerances are specified as positive and negative deviations.

O

OCR
Optical Character Recognition. Technology for machine reading of human readable text.

On-Demand
A printing term (also for labels) describing how printing is done. On-demand usually incorporates a digital printing process as opposed to a long run printing process utilizing negatives or plates and the requirements of long run printing.

One-Dimensional Bar Code
A complete message is expressed by a single line of bars. Also linear barcode.

Operating Temperature
Prescribed temperature range for the safe operation of a thermal printer.

Orientation
The alignment of a bar code symbol with respect to horizontal.

Optical throw
Minimum distance a bar code can be away from a scanner and still be read.

Orientation
The orientation of the barcode, such as horizontal with vertical bars and spaces (picket fence) and vertical with horizontal bars and spaces (ladder).

Overhead
The fixed number of characters required for start, stop, and checking in a given bar code symbol.

P

Pacific Barcode
Located in Temecula, CA, Pacific Barcode is the premier source for preprinted labels, equipment (scanners, printers, etc.) and supplies: http://www.pacificbarcode.com

PCS
A bar code verification term. Print contrast signal.
Measurement of the ratio of the reflectivity between the bars and spaces of a bar code field, commonly expressed in percent.

Permanency
A measure of an adhesive’s ultimate holding power or bond strength.

Permanent Adhesive
An adhesive that has the strongest possible bond with the item.

Pharamacode
Pharmacode, also known as Pharmaceutical Binary Code, is a barcode standard, used in the pharmaceutical industry as a packing control system.

Picket fence
A bar code whose length is printed horizontally and the bars are presented in an array which looks like a picket fence.

PLU
Price look-up codes, commonly called PLU codes, PLU numbers, PLUs, produce codes, or produce labels, are identification numbers affixed to produce in grocery stores and supermarkets to make check-out and inventory control easier, faster, and more accurate. The code may be a four-digit number, currently in the 3000–4999 range, identifying the type of bulk produce, including the variety, or a five-digit number. (wikipedia)

Point of Sale (POS)
Refers to the Electronic Cash Register in a retail business.

Polyester
A strong film having good resistance to moisture, solvents, oils, and many other chemicals.

Polyethylene
A tough, sturdy plastic film having very good, low temperature characteristics.

Polypropylene
Similar to polyethylene but stronger, with a higher temperature resistance. Often used in the creation of Zebra media.

Postnet Code
A bar code symbology used primarily by the U.S. Postal Service for mail sorting. All bars and spaces are the same width. ZIP Code information is encoded into the particular arrangement of tall and short bars.

Print Quality
A bar code verification term. The measure of compliance of a bar code symbol to the requirements of various qualities of the barcode.

Pressure Sensitive Label
Pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA, self adhesive, self stick adhesive) is adhesive which forms bond when pressure is applied to adhere the label or other item to the adherent. No solvent, water or other component is required.

Q

QR Code
A QR code (quick response) is a two-dimensional bar code developed for use in Japan that permits the encoding of binary, Kanji, and alphanumeric information. They have been adapted for a variety of marketing applications.

Quiet Zone
A clear space which precedes the start character of a bar code field and follows the stop characters. Sometimes called the “clear area.”

R

Read rate
Bar code verification term. The ratio of successful bar code reads to the total number of attempts.

Reflectance
A bar code verification term. The ratio of the amount of light which is reflected back from the white spaces of a bar code during scanning to the amount of light reflected under similar illumination conditions.

Ribbon
A cloth or plastic tape coated with several layers of material, one of which is ink-like, that produces the visible marks on the the material to be printed.

Residue
Adhesive left on a substrate when a decal is removed.

Resolution
The higher the resolution the better the print quality. Measured in dots per inch (dpi).

S

Scanner
An electro/optical device that converts the bars and spaces of a bar code field into electrical signals.

Service Temperature
The temperature range that a pressure sensitive label will withstand after a 72-hour residence time on the substrate. The range is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit and/or degrees Celsius.

SSCC18 Barcode
This Symbology is also known as UPC-128 Shipping Container Code, Code 128 UPC Shipping Container Code, Serial Shipping Container Code, UCC-128, EAN-18, NVE (Nummer der Versandeinheit)

Substitution error rate.
The rate of occurrence of incorrect characters.

SKU
Stock Keeping Units. In a distribution/retail environment, a generic term for item or part number.

Soundscan
Nielsen SoundScan is an information and sales tracking system created by Mike Fine and Mike Shalett. Soundscan is the official method of tracking sales of music and music video products throughout the United States and Canada. Data is collected weekly and made available every Wednesday to subscribers, which include executives from all facets of record companies, publishing firms, music retailers, independent promoters, film and TV, and artist management. SoundScan is the sales source for the Billboard music charts, making it the official source of sales records in the music industry. (wikipedia)

Space width
The thickness of a space measured from the edge closest to the symbol start character to the trailing edge of the same space.

Spectral Response
Bar code verification term. The variation in sensitivity of a test surface to light of different wavelengths.

Stacked code
Where a long bar code field is broken into sections and “stacked” one upon the other, resulting in codes that are extremely compact.

Start-stop character
A special bar code character that provides the scanner with start and stop reading instructions as well as scanning direction indicator.

Symbol
A combination of bar code characters, including start/stop characters, quiet zones, data characters, and check characters required by a particular symbology.

Symbol Length
The distance between the outside edges of the quiet zones on the two ends of a bar code field.

Symbology
Bar code type.

T

Thermal direct
Printing method where dots are selectively heated and cooled and dragged upon heat-sensitive paper. The paper turns dark in the heated areas. Thermal Direct paper or labels can turn dark if exposed to direct heat or sunlight.

Thermal transfer
A printing method like thermal direct except a one-time ribbon is used. This eliminates the problems of fading or changing color inherent in thermal direct printing.

U

UCC
Uniform Code Council – formerly the Uniform Product Code Council, now referred to as the GS1. Where all barcodes originate. There are a number of legal resellers including Nationwide Barcode. http://www.nationwidebarcode.com

UPC
Universal Product Code. The standard bar code type for retail products in the United States.

UPC-A
A fixed length, numeric, bar code type used primarily in the retail industry for labeling packages.
There are two additional variations of the UPC-A barcode. One having a two digit extension and the other having a 5 digit extension. The 2 digit extension is used by magazine and publication publishers and the 5 digit by greeting card manufacturers.

UPC-E
A UPC-E barcode is a shortened representation of a UPC-A. It reduces the data length from 12 digits to 6 digits by compressing the extra digits. Not all UPC-A barcodes can be converted to UPC-E.

V

Vector
Vector images are made up of many scalable images and are defined by mathematical equations so they can render at the absolute highest quality/ This objects can consist of lines, curves, shapes with editable characteristics.

Verifier
A device that makes measurements of the bars, spaces, quiet zones and optical characteristics of a bar code field to determine if the code meets the requirements of a specification or standard.

Vertical bar code
A bar code field printed in a rotation perpendicular to the horizon so that the individual bars appear as rungs on a ladder.

Visible laser diode
Used in some hand laser scanners to project a beam of light visible to the human eye, simplifying the scanning process.

Void
A printing and bar code verification term. An undesirable absence of ink in a bar.

W

X

X-dimension
The width of the narrow bars and spaces in a bar code type; usually measured in mils.

Y

Z
Zebra
(Brand) A thermal print technology company intent on providing innovative labeling solutions and quality products of renowned reliability to its customers.